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  1. TFIID is a multiprotein complex that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription owing to its core promoter recognition and co-activator functions. TAF6 is a core TFIID s...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Wilhelm, Mara Kornete, Brice Targat, Jimmy Vigneault-Edwards, Mattia Frontini, Laszlo Tora, Arndt Benecke and Brendan Bell

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:10

    Content type: Research article

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  2. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is a pivotal enzyme involved in metabolism of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan commonly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously demonstrated...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Bélanger, Jelena Tojcic, Mario Harvey and Chantal Guillemette

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:9

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse trans...

    Authors: Julia M Lee, John R Roche, Danny J Donaghy, Anthony Thrush and Puthigae Sathish

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:8

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The mechanisms of brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are incompletely understood. Gene expression studies using quantitative real-time RT-PCR following ICH have increased our understanding ...

    Authors: Naomi L Cook, Timothy J Kleinig, Corinna van den Heuvel and Robert Vink

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:7

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by p...

    Authors: Wesley Reardon, Sohini Chakrabortee, Tiago Campos Pereira, Trevor Tyson, Matthew C Banton, Katharine M Dolan, Bridget A Culleton, Michael J Wise, Ann M Burnell and Alan Tunnacliffe

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:6

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Placenta-derived oestrogens have an impact on the growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, and are involved in processes initiating and facilitating birth. The enzyme that converts androgens into oestrog...

    Authors: Rainer Fürbass, Wolfgang Tomek and Jens Vanselow

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:5

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Aberrant activation of protein kinases is one of the essential oncogenic driving forces inherent to the process of tumorigenesis. The protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in diverse biological processes,...

    Authors: Michal Mikula, Karolina Hanusek, Agnieszka Paziewska, Artur Dzwonek, Tymon Rubel, Karol Bomsztyk and Jerzy Ostrowski

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:4

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The transcriptional activity of Nuclear hormone Receptors (NRs) is regulated by interaction with coactivator or corepressor proteins. Many of these cofactors have been shown to have a misregulated expression o...

    Authors: Romain Guyot, Séverine Vincent, Julie Bertin, Jacques Samarut and Patrick Ravel-Chapuis

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:3

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The GLI transcription factors, mediators of the hedgehog signal bind with high affinity to the consensus sequence GACCACCCA. The affinity of variant single substitutions in GLI binding sites has been measured ...

    Authors: Martina Winklmayr, Carmen Schmid, Sandra Laner-Plamberger, Alexandra Kaser, Fritz Aberger, Thomas Eichberger and Anna-Maria Frischauf

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:2

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) is the most important flowering pot plant produced in Belgium, being exported world-wide. In the breeding program, flower color is the main feature for selection, only in late...

    Authors: Ellen De Keyser, Qing Yan Shu, Erik Van Bockstaele and Jan De Riek

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:1

    Content type: Research article

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  11. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalizat...

    Authors: Ard M Nijhof, Jesper A Balk, Milagros Postigo and Frans Jongejan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:112

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Whole genome transcriptomic analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the pathogenesis of obligate intracellular bacteria. However, the major hurdle resides in the low q...

    Authors: Loïc Emboulé, France Daigle, Damien F Meyer, Bernard Mari, Valérie Pinarello, Christian Sheikboudou, Virginie Magnone, Roger Frutos, Alain Viari, Pascal Barbry, Dominique Martinez, Thierry Lefrançois and Nathalie Vachiéry

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:111

    Content type: Methodology article

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  13. The Tousled-like kinases are involved in chromatin assembly, DNA repair, transcription, and chromosome segregation. Previous evidence indicated that TLK1B can promote repair of plasmids with cohesive ends in vitr...

    Authors: Caroline Canfield, Justin Rains and Arrigo De Benedetti

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:110

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteins (CPEBs) regulate translation by binding to regulatory motifs of defined mRNA targets. This translational mechanism has been shown to play a critical role in...

    Authors: Xiang-Ping Wang and Nigel GF Cooper

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:109

    Content type: Research article

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  15. hAT elements and V(D)J recombination may have evolved from a common ancestral transposable element system. Extrachromosomal, circular forms of transposable elements (referred to here as episomal forms) have been ...

    Authors: David A O'Brochta, Christina D Stosic, Kristina Pilitt, Ramanand A Subramanian, Robert H Hice and Peter W Atkinson

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:108

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays a crucial role in development and plasticity of the nervous system. Neural cells thus require precise control of L1 expression.

    Authors: Tanja Schneegans, Uwe Borgmeyer, Moritz Hentschke, Richard M Gronostajski, Melitta Schachner and Thomas Tilling

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:107

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Gene expression analysis is an important tool in contemporary research, with real-time PCR as the method of choice for quantifying transcription levels. Co-analysis of suitable reference genes is crucial for a...

    Authors: Yvonne Kessler, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, Valentino Cattori, Marina L Meli, Bigna Zellweger, Pete Ossent, Barbara Riond, Claudia E Reusch, Hans Lutz and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:106

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Nucleosomes are the basic structural units of eukaryotic chromatin and play a key role in regulation of gene expression. After resolution of the nucleosome structure, the bipartite nature of this particle has ...

    Authors: Francesco Pedone and Daniele Santoni

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:105

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Arsenic is one of the most ubiquitous toxins and endangers the health of tens of millions of humans worldwide. It is a mainly a water-borne contaminant. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (AsIII) is one of the major spe...

    Authors: Mohamad Hamdi, Marco A Sanchez, Lauren C Beene, Qianyong Liu, Scott M Landfear, Barry P Rosen and Zijuan Liu

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:104

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Sterol carrier protein-2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (SCPx) gene has been suggested to be involved in absorption and transport of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a membrane component and is a precursor of ecdysteroids,...

    Authors: Xing-Rong Guo, Si-Chun Zheng, Lin Liu and Qi-Li Feng

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:102

    Content type: Research article

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  21. CITED proteins belong to a family of non-DNA-binding transcriptional co-regulators that are characterized by a conserved ED-rich domain at the C-terminus. This family of genes is involved in the regulation of ...

    Authors: Patrick KS Ng, Sung-Kay Chiu, Theresa FN Kwong, Richard MK Yu, Minnie ML Wong and Richard YC Kong

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:101

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Quantitative real-time PCR gene expression results are generally normalised using endogenous control genes. These reference genes should be expressed at a constant level across all sample groups in a study, an...

    Authors: Caroline G Walker, Susanne Meier, Murray D Mitchell, John R Roche and Mathew Littlejohn

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:100

    Content type: Methodology article

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  23. Real-time RT-PCR is the recommended method for quantitative gene expression analysis. A compulsory step is the selection of good reference genes for normalization. A few genes often referred to as HouseKeeping...

    Authors: Marie-Ange Teste, Manon Duquenne, Jean M François and Jean-Luc Parrou

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:99

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Gene conversion depends upon the same factors that carry out more general process of homologous recombination, including homologous gene targeting and recombinational repair. Among these are the RAD51 paralogs...

    Authors: Ellen C Ordinario, Munehisa Yabuki, Priya Handa, W Jason Cummings and Nancy Maizels

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:98

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Human angiostrongyliasis is an emerging food-borne public health problem, with the number of cases increasing worldwide, especially in mainland China. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of this se...

    Authors: Hualiang He, Mei Cheng, Xiao Yang, Jinxiu Meng, Ai He, Xiaoying Zheng, Zhuoya Li, Pengjuan Guo, Zhihua Pan and Ximei Zhan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:97

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1 or Osteopontin, OPN) is a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein involved in development and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Previously, we have demonstrated that porcine SPP1

    Authors: Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Hans-Martin Seyfert, Xuanming Shi and Klaus Wimmers

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:96

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II is unidirectional from most genes. In plants, divergent genes, defined as non-overlapping genes organized head-to-head, are highly represented in the Arabidopsis g...

    Authors: Hernán G Bondino and Estela M Valle

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:95

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hypoxic culturing of chondrocytes is gaining increasing interest in cartilage research. Culturing of chondrocytes under low oxygen tension has shown several advantages, among them increased synthesis of extrac...

    Authors: Casper Bindzus Foldager, Samir Munir, Michael Ulrik-Vinther, Kjeld Søballe, Cody Bünger and Martin Lind

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:94

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) data needs to be normalized for its proper interpretation. Housekeeping genes are routinely employed for this purpose, but their expression level cann...

    Authors: Ruibo Hu, Chengming Fan, Hongyu Li, Qingzhu Zhang and Yong-Fu Fu

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:93

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The fine tuning of two features of the bacterial regulatory machinery have been known to contribute to the diversity of gene expression within the same regulon: the sequence of Transcription Factor (TF) bindin...

    Authors: Abel González Pérez, Vladimir Espinosa Angarica, Julio Collado-Vides and Ana Tereza Ribeiro Vasconcelos

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:92

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The interaction between a transcription factor and DNA motif (cis-acting element) is an important regulatory step in gene regulation. Comprehensive genome-wide methods have been developed to characterize protein-...

    Authors: Min-Jeong Kim, Tae-Ho Lee, Yoon-Mok Pahk, Yul-Ho Kim, Hyang-Mi Park, Yang Do Choi, Baek Hie Nahm and Yeon-Ki Kim

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:91

    Content type: Methodology article

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  32. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of ~22 nucleotide small RNA molecules which regulate gene expression by fully or partially binding to their complementary sequences in mRNAs or promoters. A large number of miRN...

    Authors: Weiwu Jin, Jason R Grant, Paul Stothard, Stephen S Moore and Le Luo Guan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:90

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Proteins of the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) family, CtBP1 and CtBP2 are closely related transcriptional regulators that are coded by two different gene loci in the vertebrate genomes. They perform redund...

    Authors: Ling-Jun Zhao, M Kuppuswamy, S Vijayalingam and G Chinnadurai

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:89

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The POU5F1 gene encodes the octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct4). It is crucial in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development and widely used as molecular marker of embryonic stem cells ...

    Authors: Julianna Kobolak, Katalin Kiss, Zsuzsanna Polgar, Solomon Mamo, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Zsuzsanna Tancos, Istvan Bock, Arpad G Baji, Krisztina Tar, Melinda K Pirity and Andras Dinnyes

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:88

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Many cellular multi-protein complexes are naturally present in cells at low abundance. Baculovirus expression offers one approach to produce milligram quantities of correctly folded and processed eukaryotic pr...

    Authors: Rob J Noad, Meredith Stewart, Mark Boyce, Cristina C Celma, Keith R Willison and Polly Roy

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:87

    Content type: Methodology article

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  36. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can occur in response to ionizing radiation (IR), radiomimetic agents and from endogenous DNA-damaging reactive oxygen metabolites. Unrepaired or improperly repaired DSBs are po...

    Authors: Sara M Bennett, Tracy M Neher, Andrea Shatilla and John J Turchi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:86

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional protein that controls a large number of genes and biological processes in vertebrates. As a general transcription factor, ...

    Authors: Jeong Do Kim, Sungryul Yu and Joomyeong Kim

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:85

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The zinc finger (ZF) protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is highly conserved in Drosophila and vertebrates where it has been shown to mediate chromatin insulation at a genomewide level. A mode of genetic regulati...

    Authors: Peter Heger, Birger Marin and Einhard Schierenberg

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:84

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Neph3 (filtrin) is expressed in the glomerular podocytes where it localizes at the specialized cell adhesion structures of the foot processes called slit diaphragms which form the outermost layer of the glomer...

    Authors: Mervi Ristola, Satu Arpiainen, Moin A Saleem, Peter W Mathieson, Gavin I Welsh, Sanna Lehtonen and Harry Holthöfer

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:83

    Content type: Research article

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  40. DNA polymerase δ plays an essential role in chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, being responsible for synthesising the bulk of the lagging strand. In fission yeast, Pol δ is a heterotetrameric enz...

    Authors: Javier Sanchez Garcia, Andrey G Baranovskiy, Elena V Knatko, Fiona C Gray, Tahir H Tahirov and Stuart A MacNeill

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:82

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Mammalian transcriptome contains a large proportion of diverse and structurally complex noncoding RNAs. One class of such RNAs, natural antisense transcripts (NATs), are derived from the opposite strand of man...

    Authors: Tarmo Annilo, Katrin Kepp and Maris Laan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:81

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The validity and reproducibility of gene expression studies depend on the quality of extracted RNA and the degree of genomic DNA contamination. Cyanobacteria are gram-negative prokaryotes that synthesize chlor...

    Authors: Fernando Lopes Pinto, Anders Thapper, Wolfgang Sontheim and Peter Lindblad

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:79

    Content type: Methodology article

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  43. It is no longer adequate to choose reference genes blindly. We present the first study that defines the suitability of 12 reference genes commonly used in cancer studies (ACT, ALAS, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, KALPHA...

    Authors: Benjamin Lallemant, Alexandre Evrard, Christophe Combescure, Heliette Chapuis, Guillaume Chambon, Caroline Raynal, Christophe Reynaud, Omar Sabra, Dominique Joubert, Frédéric Hollande, Jean-Gabriel Lallemant, Serge Lumbroso and Jean-Paul Brouillet

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:78

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Excessive accumulation of bilirubin contributes to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in rats. Heme oxygenase (HO) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in catabolizing heme to bilirubin. In the present study, we inves...

    Authors: Jinyong Wu, Wen Su, Youxin Jin, Yi Shi, Chune Li, Wenwei Zhong, Xuehong Zhang, Zili Zhang and Zhenwei Xia

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:77

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Methylation of lysine 79 on histone H3 by Dot1 is required for maintenance of heterochromatin structure in yeast and humans. However, this histone modification occurs predominantly in euchromatin. Thus, Dot1 a...

    Authors: Kitty F Verzijlbergen, Alex W Faber, Iris JE Stulemeijer and Fred van Leeuwen

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:76

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Retrotransposition is an important evolutionary force for the creation of new and potentially functional intronless genes which are collectively called retrogenes. Many retrogenes are expressed in the testis a...

    Authors: Chiu-Jung Huang, Wan-Yi Lin, Che-Ming Chang and Kong-Bung Choo

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:74

    Content type: Research article

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